日本人英文法の意外な穴

帝京大学教授で、ルミナス英和辞典(研究社)をはじめとする英語辞書編纂にも多く関わってこられたクリストファ・バーナード先生が月3~4回、語法、語彙を含めた広い意味での英文法の様々なトピックを解説します。

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130. "-s", or "of" ? (Part 2)

130. "-s", or "of" ? (Part 2)

Continuing from the previous Column, here is list of kinds of nouns which use, or tend to use, "-s" in the possessive. When "of" also sounds all right, I have marked "> of". As you can see, I have divided these into "HUMAN", "PLACE AND TIME", "SPECIAL IDIOMS".

"HUMAN"
PERSONAL NAMES
John's pen

PERSONAL NOUNS
the girl's doll
our son's education

ANIMAL NOUNS (HIGHER ANIMALS, ESPECIALLY PETS)
the cat's toy
our dog's bed
a horse's saddle 馬の鞍

COLLECTIVE NOUNS, ESPECIALLY OF ORGANIZATIONS
the government's policy > of
the board's recommendation > of 理事会の推薦
the committee's decision > of
the audience's reaction > of 聴衆の反応
the staff's protest > of
the team's victory
the company's history > of
Tokyo University's Department of Foreign Languages

GEOGRAPHICAL NAMES WHEN THEY INCLUDE HUMAN BEINGS
Europe's natural resources
Japan's population growth > of
Tokyo's transport system
China's economy > of
China's planning for the Olympic Games

NOUNS RELATED TO HUMAN ACTIVITY
the liver's function > of 肝臓の機能
the body's development > of
his life's work (= his lifework)
a word's meaning > of
the essay's main point > of
the dictionary's layout > of

"PLACE AND TIME"
PLACE NOUNS
the Moon's gravity > of 月の引力
the Earth's rotation > of 地球の回転
the world's population problem
the nation's traditions > of
the factory's output > of 工場の生産量
the school's main gate > of
the university's rugby team

TIME NOUNS
yesterday's news
the week's schedule
a fortnight's holiday 二週間の休み
last month's sales 先月の売り上げ
this baseball season's hero
this winter's worst snowstorm > of

"SPECIAL IDIOMS"
get my money's worth 払った金(努力)に見合うだけのものを得る(楽しむ)
twenty dollar's worth of gasoline
a stone's throw away 石を投げれば届く距離(近所)
at my wits' end 途方に暮れて
keep him at arm's length 少し距離をおいて、関わり合いを避けて
within arm's reach 手の届く所に
in my mind's eye 心の中で想像して

◆NOTES◆
in the possessive:所有格で


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129. "-s", or "of" ? (Part 1)

129. "-s", or "of" ? (Part 1) 

It is often difficult for learners of English to know whether to use "-s" or "of", as in expressions like this:
our team's victory vs. the victory of our team.

There is a lot of overlap between these two expressions, but in this Column and the one following this (Column 130) I will present the main rules.

To start with, there is a very general rule to the effect that when the "possessor" is a human being, we use "-s":
1) Mary's pen
2) the girl's toy

A further rule is that the closer the possessor is to being a human being, the more likely "-s" will be used.

For example, when "Japan" is seen as "an area or land", we would use "of", as in the following:
3) a map of Japan
4) the mountains of Japan

However, when "Japan" is seen as "a group of human beings / a society" we are more likely to use "-s", as in the following:
5) Japan's aid to foreign countries 日本の海外援助
6) Japan's hosting of a marathon 日本によるマラソンの主催(日本主催のマラソン)

In the following examples, we can use either "-s" or "of". As can be seen from the examples, these are borderline cases, in which "Japan" is perhaps an area, or perhaps a group of human beings:
7) Japan's economy > of
8) Japan's ancient customs > of
9) Japan's transport network > of 日本の交通網
10) Japan's constitution > of 日本の憲法

In the next Column I will give a list of types of nouns which use "-s" in the possessive.


◆NOTES◆
To start with:まず第一に
to the effect that ...:...という趣旨の
the possessor:所有者
a borderline case:どっちつかずの状態、中間的な場合
the closer the possessor is to being a human being:所有者が人間に近ければ近いほど<the possessor is closer to being a human being(「the -er ..., the -er ~:...すればするほど、それだけ~」のパターン)
be seen as ~:~と見なされる
either A or B:AもBも
As can be seen from ~:~からわかるように




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123. Reported thought (Part 3)

123. Reported thought (Part 3)


In the last Column, I gave examples of reported thought in the case of DOUBTING/NOT DECIDING verbs. In this Column I will give more examples of reported thought, but with two different sets of verbs (namely KNOWING/WORRYING and OPINION/REALIZATION).

KNOWING/WORRYING
1) "Oh! I know his name."
I remembered what his name was. >> 覚えている
2) "I used to know where he lives, but I don't now."
I have forgotten where he lives. >> 忘れている
3) Teacher: "I have memorized when everyone's birthday is."
The teacher memorized when everyone's birthday was [is]. >> 暗記する
4) "I have known for a long time that although it seems like the truth, it is in fact a lie."
I had long been aware that what had seemed to be true was in fact a lie. >> 気がついている
5) My dream: "I have won a lot of money in a lottery!"
I dreamt that I had won a lot of money in a lottery.
6) "I am a bit worried because this decision is perhaps not the right one."
I was afraid/worried/anxious that the decision was the wrong one. >> 心配している/不安に思っている
7) "Things may not turn out as we hope."
She feared that things would not turn out as she (had) hoped. >> 恐れている
8) "We are all relieved because the criminal has been caught."
Everyone was relieved/happy that the criminal was [had been] caught/when the criminal was [had been] caught. >> ほっとする/嬉しい

OPINION/REALISATION
9) "Mastering a foreign language is not so easy."
I learnt/discovered/understood/realised that mastering a foreign language is [was] not so easy. >> わかる/発見する/理解する
10) "It is possible to solve the problem in this way."
I learnt/discovered/understood/figured out/found out/realised how the problem could be solved. >> わかる/発見する/理解する/見つける/悟る
11) "Perhaps this problem will return."
I guessed/had a feeling/supposed/expected that the problem would return. >> 推測する/...のような気がする/推定する/多分...するだろう
12) "John will never lie to us."
I never suspected that John would lie to us. >> 疑っている
13) "We are all sure that he will pass the exam."
We were all sure/were all confident/had all expected that he would pass the exam. >> きっと...するだろう/自信がある/期待する
14) "According to the data, this dinosaur lived seventy million years ago."
The scientists estimated/calculated/determined that the dinosaur (had) lived seventy million years ago. >> 推定する/計算する/測定する
15) "I will never surrender to him!"
I was determined that I would never surrender to him. >> 決心をする
16) "We have made up our minds that he is the one who has committed the crime."
We made up our minds/came to the conclusion/jumped to the conclusion/concluded that he was the one who had committed the crime/who the criminal was. >> 決め込む/結論を出す/早まった結論を下す/断定する
17) "I will enter the world of politics."
She made up her mind to enter the world of politics/that she would enter the world of politics. >> 決心をする

To conclude these three Columns, we can say that:

a) learners should think of reported thought, as well as reported speech.
b) sometimes it is not obvious that the verb or verb expression is related to reported thought.
c) it is useful to divide reported speech verbs and expressions into meaning groups (DOUBTING/NOT DECIDING, etc.)
d) it is important to master the grammar rules of reported thought and reported speech (see Columns 102, 103, and 104).


◆NOTES◆
namely:すなわち
a criminal:犯人
as well as ~:~と同様に
divide A into B:AをB(いくつかのグループ)に分ける

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122. Reported thought (Part 2)

122. Reported thought (Part 2)

Sometimes there are verbs, or verb expressions, which are also used to report thought, but which are not so clearly verbs of reporting thought. For example, "know" (as in the previous Column) is clearly a verb which can be used to report thought. However, it is perhaps less clear that "have no idea", or "cannot imagine", or "dream" are verbs, or verb expressions, which can be used to report thought.

In the example sentences in this Column, I have limited myself to verbs (or verb expressions) which are related to DOUBTING/NOT DECIDING. Also, as you can see, I have given examples of the probable original sentence (i.e., the sentence in direct thought) in quotation marks. You should think of these sentences in quotation marks as being the original thought in someone's head. The thought is then reported, so it becomes reported thought.

Here are the examples:

DOUBTING/NOT DECIDING
1) "We do not think he will succeed in this new job."
We all thought that he would not succeed in his new job/doubted whether he would succeed in this new job. >> 疑う
2) "I did not know where he lived."
I had no idea where he lived/that he lived there. >> 見当がつかない
3) "I do not think he will pass the exam."
I did not think that he would pass the exam/I could not imagine that he would pass the exam. >> 想像ができない 
4) "I cannot decide how to do it."
I was undecided how to do it/how it could be done. >> 決定されていない
5) "We do not know the best way to climb this mountain."
We could not make up our minds how to climb the mountain/what the best way to climb the mountain was. >> 決められない
6) "I find it very difficult to decide who to marry."
She agonized over who to marry/whether to marry John or Peter/whether she should marry John or Peter. >> 悩む

An important point to note is that with these verbs of DOUBTING/NOT DECIDING we can often use wh- words (who, what, when, where, why, how, whether).


◆NOTES◆

clearly:明らかに
limit oneself to ~:自らを~に限定する
probable:十分ありそうな、考えられうる
think of A as B:AをBと考える、みなす
a point to note:注意すべき点

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121. Reported thought (Part 1)

121. Reported thought (Part 1)

In Columns 102, 103, and 104 I wrote about the grammar of reported speech. But I did not really discuss that the grammar of reported thought is the same as the grammar of reported speech. Learners often forget to apply the rules of reported speech to reported thought.

In some cases it is quite easy to see the connection between reported speech and reported thought.

1) I said that he was Japanese. [reported speech]
2) I knew that he was Japanese. [reported thought]
3) I asked where he lived. [reported speech]
4) I did not know where he lived. [reported thought]

In (2) and (4) it is clear that "know" is reporting a thought (namely "that he was Japanese", and "where he lived").

Here are some example sentences with verbs which are used to report thoughts:

5) I realised that he was wrong.
6) I regretted that I had asked him to help me.
7) I remembered that I had seen her before.
8) I understood that it was not so easy to solve the problem.
9) She did not believe what I said.
10) I asked myself which the best choice was.

Perhaps this is not so difficult. If you are on your toes, you will notice that verbs like "know", "realise", "regret", etc. can be used to report thought.

In the next two Columns I will continue to look at reported thought.


◆NOTES◆
reported speech 間接話法
apply A to B:AをBに適用する
be on one's toes:(いつも応じられるように)準備を整える、油断しないでいる


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