In the last Column, I wrote that the following were acceptable:
1) In spite of the fact that it is a pen, it does not write.
2) In spite of it being Tokyo, we could find nowhere to eat late at night.
However, the following are not correct English:
3) X In spite of a pen, ...
4) X In spite of Tokyo, ...
I think that the easiest way to check whether we can use the short version is to substitute "Because (of)" for "In spite of". When we do this, it becomes much clearer that a simple label before the comma looks strange:
5) X Because of autumn / a holiday / a pen / Tokyo, ...
All the possibilities in (5) are not grammatical. As in the case of "In spite of", with "Because (of)" we need some kind of hint that tells us how the sentence is going to logically develop:
6) Because it is autumn, the trees are red and orange.
7) Because of the rainy autumn, I have stayed indoors a lot.
8) Because it is a holiday, ...
9) Because of the unexpected holiday, ...
So, to summarize these three Columns, we can say the following:
a) "In spite of" has a short version, and two long versions.
b) In the case of "In spite of" sentences, the information before the comma must allow us to make a guess as to what comes after the comma.
c) Because of (b), a simple label usually cannot be before the comma.
d) If we have a simple label in a Japanese sentence, we must expand it to a clause if we want to translate the Japanese to English.
d) We can use "Because (of)" as a grammar check.
substitute A for B：Bの代わりにAを使う
When we use "In spite of", we must remember the following:
a) The information after the comma is surprising information about what comes before the comma.
b) However, the information before the comma must be enough to give a hint to the reader or listener about what comes after the comma. In other words, there cannot be a complete logical jump between what is before the comma, and what is after the comma.
c) Because of (b), we often cannot use a noun by itself which is just acting as a sort of simple label. In other words, there must be some information concerning the noun which allows this noun to logically connect to the clause which comes after the comma.
Here are examples of nouns used as simple labels:
1) X In spite of autumn, ...
2) X In spite of a pen, ...
3) X In spite of Tokyo, ...
It is easy to see that these nouns do not contain any information, or give us any hint as to how the sentences are going to continue.
We can compare (1) above with this:
4) In spite of the early autumn, ...
In this case it is easy to guess how the sentence may be completed. Therefore using what I called the "short version" (see Column 116) is ungrammatical in (1), (2), and (3), and we therefore have to use the long version.
When the noun is a simple label, a naked noun as it were, it becomes necessary to expand the noun so that it is part of a clause, so that it is then no longer a simple label. We do this in the following ways:
5) In spite of the fact that it is a pen, ... / In spite of it being a pen,...
6) In spite of the fact that it was Tokyo,... / In spite of it being Tokyo, ...
When the simple label ("a pen"; "Tokyo") is expanded in this way, we can then get a hint as to what comes after the comma:
6) In spite of the fact that it is a pen, it does not write.
7) In spite of it being Tokyo, we could find nowhere to eat late at night.
In the next Column, I will discuss how we can test to see whether the short version is possible, or whether we must use a long version.
a logical jump 論理の飛躍
a noun by itself：名詞をそれだけで（使う）
logically connect to something ...に論理的なつながりを作る
act as ～：～の役割を果たす
as it were：いわば
We can translate "にもかかわらず" as "In spite of" in, for example, these sentences:
In spite of the nice weather, I intend to stay at home all day.
In spite of the holiday, the trains were crowded.
The English sentences above we can call the "short versions". We can also translate these sentences by using the "long versions":
3) In spite of the fact that the weather was nice, ... / In spite of the weather being nice, ...
4) In spite of the fact that it was a holiday, ... / In spite of it being a holiday, ...
However, these Japanese sentences cannot be translated into English using the short versions:
We must use the long versions:
5) In spite of the fact that it was August, it is a bit chilly.
6) In spite of it being August, it is a bit chilly.
7) In spite of the fact that it was the middle of the night, I was not sleepy.
8) In spite of it being the middle of the night, I was not sleepy.
In the next Column, I will explain why this is so.
Another way of looking at patterns with true cognate objects is to see them as being equivalent to adverbial patterns like this:
1) He slept a deep sleep. > He slept deeply.
2) He laughed a loud laugh. > He laughed loudly.
3) He died a sudden death. > He died suddenly.
Here is quite a long list of adjective + cognate object:
sleep a/an -------------------- sleep
yawn a -------------------- yawn
sigh a -------------------- sigh
cough a -------------------- cough
sneeze a -------------------- sneeze
breathe a -------------------- breath
smile a/an -------------------- smile
laugh a/an -------------------- laugh
live a/an -------------------- life
die a/an -------------------- death
fight a -------------------- fight
Just to summarise, "dream a dream" is okay but not "sleep a sleep", since we have to use an adjective ("sleep a deep sleep"). It is the latter kind of pattern that I have here called the cognate object pattern.
be equivalent to ～：～と同等である