日本人英文法の意外な穴

帝京大学教授で、ルミナス英和辞典(研究社)をはじめとする英語辞書編纂にも多く関わってこられたクリストファ・バーナード先生が月3~4回、語法、語彙を含めた広い意味での英文法の様々なトピックを解説します。

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118. Why can we say 「秋にもかかわらず...」but not "In spite of autumn..."? (3)

118. Why can we say 「秋にもかかわらず...」but not "In spite of autumn..."? (3)

In the last Column, I wrote that the following were acceptable:

1) In spite of the fact that it is a pen, it does not write.
2) In spite of it being Tokyo, we could find nowhere to eat late at night.

However, the following are not correct English:

3) X In spite of a pen, ...
4) X In spite of Tokyo, ...

I think that the easiest way to check whether we can use the short version is to substitute "Because (of)" for "In spite of". When we do this, it becomes much clearer that a simple label before the comma looks strange:

5) X Because of autumn / a holiday / a pen / Tokyo, ...

All the possibilities in (5) are not grammatical. As in the case of "In spite of", with "Because (of)" we need some kind of hint that tells us how the sentence is going to logically develop:

6) Because it is autumn, the trees are red and orange.
7) Because of the rainy autumn, I have stayed indoors a lot.
8) Because it is a holiday, ...
9) Because of the unexpected holiday, ...

So, to summarize these three Columns, we can say the following:

a) "In spite of" has a short version, and two long versions.
b) In the case of "In spite of" sentences, the information before the comma must allow us to make a guess as to what comes after the comma.
c) Because of (b), a simple label usually cannot be before the comma.
d) If we have a simple label in a Japanese sentence, we must expand it to a clause if we want to translate the Japanese to English.
d) We can use "Because (of)" as a grammar check.


◆NOTES◆
acceptable:容認可能な
substitute A for B:Bの代わりにAを使う
develop:展開する
unexpected:意外な


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117. Why can we say 「秋にもかかわらず...」but not "In spite of autumn..."? (2)

117. Why can we say 「秋にもかかわらず...」but not "In spite of autumn..."? (2)

When we use "In spite of", we must remember the following:

a) The information after the comma is surprising information about what comes before the comma.
b) However, the information before the comma must be enough to give a hint to the reader or listener about what comes after the comma. In other words, there cannot be a complete logical jump between what is before the comma, and what is after the comma.
c) Because of (b), we often cannot use a noun by itself which is just acting as a sort of simple label. In other words, there must be some information concerning the noun which allows this noun to logically connect to the clause which comes after the comma.

Here are examples of nouns used as simple labels:

1) X In spite of autumn, ...
2) X In spite of a pen, ...
3) X In spite of Tokyo, ...

It is easy to see that these nouns do not contain any information, or give us any hint as to how the sentences are going to continue.

We can compare (1) above with this:

4) In spite of the early autumn, ...

In this case it is easy to guess how the sentence may be completed. Therefore using what I called the "short version" (see Column 116) is ungrammatical in (1), (2), and (3), and we therefore have to use the long version.

When the noun is a simple label, a naked noun as it were, it becomes necessary to expand the noun so that it is part of a clause, so that it is then no longer a simple label. We do this in the following ways:

5) In spite of the fact that it is a pen, ... / In spite of it being a pen,...
6) In spite of the fact that it was Tokyo,... / In spite of it being Tokyo, ...

When the simple label ("a pen"; "Tokyo") is expanded in this way, we can then get a hint as to what comes after the comma:
6) In spite of the fact that it is a pen, it does not write.
7) In spite of it being Tokyo, we could find nowhere to eat late at night.

In the next Column, I will discuss how we can test to see whether the short version is possible, or whether we must use a long version.


◆NOTES◆
a logical jump 論理の飛躍
a noun by itself:名詞をそれだけで(使う)
logically connect to something  ...に論理的なつながりを作る
act as ~:~の役割を果たす
as it were:いわば
expand:~を拡大する

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116. Why can we say 「秋にもかかわらず...」but not "In spite of autumn..."? (1)

116. Why can we say 「秋にもかかわらず...」but not "In spite of autumn..."? (1)

We can translate "にもかかわらず" as "In spite of" in, for example, these sentences:

1) いい天気にもかかわらず、一日中家にいるつもりです。
In spite of the nice weather, I intend to stay at home all day.
2) 休日にもかかわらず、電車が込んでいた。
In spite of the holiday, the trains were crowded.

The English sentences above we can call the "short versions". We can also translate these sentences by using the "long versions":

3) In spite of the fact that the weather was nice, ... / In spite of the weather being nice, ...
4) In spite of the fact that it was a holiday, ... / In spite of it being a holiday, ...

However, these Japanese sentences cannot be translated into English using the short versions:

3) 八月にもかかわらず、肌寒いです。
4) 深夜にもかかわらず、眠くなかった。

We must use the long versions:

5) In spite of the fact that it was August, it is a bit chilly.
6) In spite of it being August, it is a bit chilly.
7) In spite of the fact that it was the middle of the night, I was not sleepy.
8) In spite of it being the middle of the night, I was not sleepy.

In the next Column, I will explain why this is so.

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115. Cognate objects (2)

115. Cognate objects (2)

Another way of looking at patterns with true cognate objects is to see them as being equivalent to adverbial patterns like this:

1) He slept a deep sleep. > He slept deeply.
2) He laughed a loud laugh. > He laughed loudly.
3) He died a sudden death. > He died suddenly.

Here is quite a long list of adjective + cognate object:

sleep a/an -------------------- sleep
        long 長い
        restful 安らかな
        deep 深い
        sound ぐっすりとした 
        light  浅い
        troubled 不安な
        fitful 途切れがち
        exhausted 疲れ果てた

yawn a -------------------- yawn
        tired 疲れた

sigh a -------------------- sigh
        weary 疲れた
        resigned あきらめの
        deep 深い
        hopeless 絶望的な

cough a -------------------- cough
        dry かすれたような

sneeze a -------------------- sneeze
        loud 大きな

breathe a -------------------- breath
        deep 深い
        painful 苦しい

smile a/an -------------------- smile
        happy 嬉しそうな
        sunny 陽気な
        caring 思いやりの
        encouraging 激励の 
        knowing 物知りの 
        genuine 本物の
        puzzled 困惑した
        bewildered 途方にくれた
        anxious 心配そうな
        sad 悲しい
        false 見せかけの
        fake まやかしの
        sour 不機嫌そうな

laugh a/an -------------------- laugh
        pleasant  愉快な
        genuine 本当の
        uninhibited ずけずけとした 
        careless 無頓着な
        hysterical ヒステリックな
        silly 馬鹿げた
        bitter 苦い
        sarcastic 皮肉な
        false  まやかし
        cruel  残酷な

live a/an -------------------- life
        long 長い
        short 短い
        happy 幸せな
        full いっぱいに満ちた
        interesting 面白い
        eventful 出来事の多い
        uneventful 平穏無事な
        meaningful 意味のある
        meaningless 無意味な
        boring 退屈な
        poverty-stricken 非常に貧乏な

die a/an -------------------- death
        slow 遅い
        miserable 惨めな
        painful 苦しい
        agonizing ひどく苦痛な
        painless 痛みのない
        pointless 意味のない
        meaningless  無意味な
        useless 無駄な
        cowardly 卑怯な
        horrible 凄まじい
        horrifying ぞっとさせるような
        horrific 恐ろしい
        sudden 急な
        quick 早い

fight a -------------------- fight
        hard 激しい

Just to summarise, "dream a dream" is okay but not "sleep a sleep", since we have to use an adjective ("sleep a deep sleep"). It is the latter kind of pattern that I have here called the cognate object pattern.

◆NOTES◆
be equivalent to ~:~と同等である


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