The other day I was wondering why so many learners of English have so much difficulty with the verbs "lend" and "borrow".
The basic patterns are rather simple:
1) I lent John a pen.
2) John borrowed a pen from me.
3) Will you lend me your pen?
4) Can I borrow your pen?
Furthermore, we can remember that "lend" is short in both English and Japanese (lend [four letters], かす[two letters]), and "borrow" is long in both English and (borrow [six letters], かりる[three letters]. There therefore seems to be very little reason for confusion.
I remember that when I was learning Japanese I had a lot of trouble with the verbs 預かる and 預ける. The difference here is not a question of transitive and intransitive verbs. It is a question of in-verb vs. out-verb.
The former is an in-verb, and the latter is an out-verb:
コートをお預かりしましょう？(= I am receiving the coat
コートを預けたいんですが。(= I am getting rid of the coat)
"Borrow" is likewise an in-verb, and "lend" is likewise an out-verb. This is another reason why it is easy to remember which one is which.
In the next Column I want to give a list of in-verbs and out-verbs in English.