In Columns 102, 103, and 104 I wrote about the grammar of reported speech. But I did not really discuss that the grammar of reported thought is the same as the grammar of reported speech. Learners often forget to apply the rules of reported speech to reported thought.
In some cases it is quite easy to see the connection between reported speech and reported thought.
1) I said that he was Japanese. [reported speech]
2) I knew that he was Japanese. [reported thought]
3) I asked where he lived. [reported speech]
4) I did not know where he lived. [reported thought]
In (2) and (4) it is clear that "know" is reporting a thought (namely "that he was Japanese", and "where he lived").
Here are some example sentences with verbs which are used to report thoughts:
5) I realised that he was wrong.
6) I regretted that I had asked him to help me.
7) I remembered that I had seen her before.
8) I understood that it was not so easy to solve the problem.
9) She did not believe what I said.
10) I asked myself which the best choice was.
Perhaps this is not so difficult. If you are on your toes, you will notice that verbs like "know", "realise", "regret", etc. can be used to report thought.
In the next two Columns I will continue to look at reported thought.
reported speech 間接話法
apply A to B：AをBに適用する
be on one's toes：（いつも応じられるように）準備を整える、油断しないでいる