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123. Reported thought (Part 3)

123. Reported thought (Part 3)


In the last Column, I gave examples of reported thought in the case of DOUBTING/NOT DECIDING verbs. In this Column I will give more examples of reported thought, but with two different sets of verbs (namely KNOWING/WORRYING and OPINION/REALIZATION).

KNOWING/WORRYING
1) "Oh! I know his name."
I remembered what his name was. >> 覚えている
2) "I used to know where he lives, but I don't now."
I have forgotten where he lives. >> 忘れている
3) Teacher: "I have memorized when everyone's birthday is."
The teacher memorized when everyone's birthday was [is]. >> 暗記する
4) "I have known for a long time that although it seems like the truth, it is in fact a lie."
I had long been aware that what had seemed to be true was in fact a lie. >> 気がついている
5) My dream: "I have won a lot of money in a lottery!"
I dreamt that I had won a lot of money in a lottery.
6) "I am a bit worried because this decision is perhaps not the right one."
I was afraid/worried/anxious that the decision was the wrong one. >> 心配している/不安に思っている
7) "Things may not turn out as we hope."
She feared that things would not turn out as she (had) hoped. >> 恐れている
8) "We are all relieved because the criminal has been caught."
Everyone was relieved/happy that the criminal was [had been] caught/when the criminal was [had been] caught. >> ほっとする/嬉しい

OPINION/REALISATION
9) "Mastering a foreign language is not so easy."
I learnt/discovered/understood/realised that mastering a foreign language is [was] not so easy. >> わかる/発見する/理解する
10) "It is possible to solve the problem in this way."
I learnt/discovered/understood/figured out/found out/realised how the problem could be solved. >> わかる/発見する/理解する/見つける/悟る
11) "Perhaps this problem will return."
I guessed/had a feeling/supposed/expected that the problem would return. >> 推測する/...のような気がする/推定する/多分...するだろう
12) "John will never lie to us."
I never suspected that John would lie to us. >> 疑っている
13) "We are all sure that he will pass the exam."
We were all sure/were all confident/had all expected that he would pass the exam. >> きっと...するだろう/自信がある/期待する
14) "According to the data, this dinosaur lived seventy million years ago."
The scientists estimated/calculated/determined that the dinosaur (had) lived seventy million years ago. >> 推定する/計算する/測定する
15) "I will never surrender to him!"
I was determined that I would never surrender to him. >> 決心をする
16) "We have made up our minds that he is the one who has committed the crime."
We made up our minds/came to the conclusion/jumped to the conclusion/concluded that he was the one who had committed the crime/who the criminal was. >> 決め込む/結論を出す/早まった結論を下す/断定する
17) "I will enter the world of politics."
She made up her mind to enter the world of politics/that she would enter the world of politics. >> 決心をする

To conclude these three Columns, we can say that:

a) learners should think of reported thought, as well as reported speech.
b) sometimes it is not obvious that the verb or verb expression is related to reported thought.
c) it is useful to divide reported speech verbs and expressions into meaning groups (DOUBTING/NOT DECIDING, etc.)
d) it is important to master the grammar rules of reported thought and reported speech (see Columns 102, 103, and 104).


◆NOTES◆
namely:すなわち
a criminal:犯人
as well as ~:~と同様に
divide A into B:AをB(いくつかのグループ)に分ける

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