日本人英文法の意外な穴

帝京大学教授で、ルミナス英和辞典(研究社)をはじめとする英語辞書編纂にも多く関わってこられたクリストファ・バーナード先生が月3~4回、語法、語彙を含めた広い意味での英文法の様々なトピックを解説します。

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131. Some special possessive idioms (Part 1)

131. Some special possessive idioms (Part 1)

When I was working on the grammar of possessives (see Columns 128, 129, and 130), I collected quite a large number of idioms which use a possessive "of". 

I have never seen a list like this in any grammar book or textbook, so I hope that it is interesting to readers. 

The list follows below, and continues in Column 132. 
Since these lists are rather long, I have marked the expressions which I think are most common, or most useful, with a star (*).

MAN/WOMAN
Grammar note: 
The basic grammar pattern to use with these expressions is: 
・He is a man of courage.

a man/woman of courage 勇気のある女、勇敢な人
a man/woman of wisdom 賢者、賢い人
a man/woman of dignity 気品のある人
* a man/woman of means 資産家
* a man/woman of the world 世間慣れした男、世事に明るい人
a man/woman of science 科学者、科学的な人

AIR  
Grammar note: 
The basic grammar patterns to use with these expressions are:
・The building has an air of mystery.
・He walked into the room with an air of confidence.
・There was an air of resignation in the way he walked.

Also, in the Japanese translations I have shown which expressions are most commonly used with people by using 態度 or 様子 in the translation, and which expressions are most commonly used for a situation or place by using 雰囲気.

* an air of confidence 自信のある態度
* an air of authority 権威に満ちた態度
an air of (self-)satisfaction (自己)満足したような態度
an air of urgency 慌しい雰囲気、緊迫した態度(様子)
an air of excitement 興奮した様子(雰囲気)
an air of danger 危険な雰囲気
* an air of mystery 神秘的な雰囲気
an air of innocence 無邪気な態度(様子)
an air of indifference 無関心な態度(様子)
an air of resignation あきらめた態度
an air of hopelessness 絶望的な態度
an air of hesitancy ためらった様子
an air of prosperity 繁栄しているような雰囲気、繁栄しているような様子
* an air of freedom 自由な雰囲気

FORCE
Grammar note: 
The basic pattern to use with these expressions is:
・He succeeded by force of personality.
But these are exceptions:
・I made the decision because of force of circumstances.
・When I was in the US, I kept on driving on the wrong side of the road from force of habit.

* force of personality 人柄(人格)の力
force of character 性格の力
force of will 意志の力
* force of numbers 数の力
force of public opinion 世論の力
* force of arms 武力、武器の力
force of necessity 必要に迫られて 
* force of circumstance(s) やむを得ない事情
* force of habit 習慣の力、惰性  

CHANGING AND SHIFTING
Grammar note: 
There are a wide range of grammar patterns which can be used with these expressions. For example:
・I had a change of heart.
・There was a change of mood.
There was a shift of focus.
・I want/need a change of air.
I want/need a shift of emphasis.

* a change of attitude 態度の変化
* a change of heart 心変わり
* a change of mood 雰囲気の変化,気分の変化
* a change of atmosphere 雰囲気の変化
a change of air/scene 環境の変化、転地(療養)
* a change of subject 話題(主題)の転換
a change of direction 方向転換
* a change of luck 運の変化
a change of focus (話題の)焦点を変えること(ずらすこと)

* a shift of emphasis 重点を移すこと
a shift of responsibility 責任の移行
a shift of focus 焦点を変えること
a shift of perspective 観点の変化
a shift of power 権力の移行
a shift of attention 注意(注目)の転換

In the next Column I will continue with this list.
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