日本人英文法の意外な穴

帝京大学教授で、ルミナス英和辞典(研究社)をはじめとする英語辞書編纂にも多く関わってこられたクリストファ・バーナード先生が月3~4回、語法、語彙を含めた広い意味での英文法の様々なトピックを解説します。

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118. Why can we say 「秋にもかかわらず...」but not "In spite of autumn..."? (3)

118. Why can we say 「秋にもかかわらず...」but not "In spite of autumn..."? (3)

In the last Column, I wrote that the following were acceptable:

1) In spite of the fact that it is a pen, it does not write.
2) In spite of it being Tokyo, we could find nowhere to eat late at night.

However, the following are not correct English:

3) X In spite of a pen, ...
4) X In spite of Tokyo, ...

I think that the easiest way to check whether we can use the short version is to substitute "Because (of)" for "In spite of". When we do this, it becomes much clearer that a simple label before the comma looks strange:

5) X Because of autumn / a holiday / a pen / Tokyo, ...

All the possibilities in (5) are not grammatical. As in the case of "In spite of", with "Because (of)" we need some kind of hint that tells us how the sentence is going to logically develop:

6) Because it is autumn, the trees are red and orange.
7) Because of the rainy autumn, I have stayed indoors a lot.
8) Because it is a holiday, ...
9) Because of the unexpected holiday, ...

So, to summarize these three Columns, we can say the following:

a) "In spite of" has a short version, and two long versions.
b) In the case of "In spite of" sentences, the information before the comma must allow us to make a guess as to what comes after the comma.
c) Because of (b), a simple label usually cannot be before the comma.
d) If we have a simple label in a Japanese sentence, we must expand it to a clause if we want to translate the Japanese to English.
d) We can use "Because (of)" as a grammar check.


◆NOTES◆
acceptable:容認可能な
substitute A for B:Bの代わりにAを使う
develop:展開する
unexpected:意外な


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115. Cognate objects (2)

115. Cognate objects (2)

Another way of looking at patterns with true cognate objects is to see them as being equivalent to adverbial patterns like this:

1) He slept a deep sleep. > He slept deeply.
2) He laughed a loud laugh. > He laughed loudly.
3) He died a sudden death. > He died suddenly.

Here is quite a long list of adjective + cognate object:

sleep a/an -------------------- sleep
        long 長い
        restful 安らかな
        deep 深い
        sound ぐっすりとした 
        light  浅い
        troubled 不安な
        fitful 途切れがち
        exhausted 疲れ果てた

yawn a -------------------- yawn
        tired 疲れた

sigh a -------------------- sigh
        weary 疲れた
        resigned あきらめの
        deep 深い
        hopeless 絶望的な

cough a -------------------- cough
        dry かすれたような

sneeze a -------------------- sneeze
        loud 大きな

breathe a -------------------- breath
        deep 深い
        painful 苦しい

smile a/an -------------------- smile
        happy 嬉しそうな
        sunny 陽気な
        caring 思いやりの
        encouraging 激励の 
        knowing 物知りの 
        genuine 本物の
        puzzled 困惑した
        bewildered 途方にくれた
        anxious 心配そうな
        sad 悲しい
        false 見せかけの
        fake まやかしの
        sour 不機嫌そうな

laugh a/an -------------------- laugh
        pleasant  愉快な
        genuine 本当の
        uninhibited ずけずけとした 
        careless 無頓着な
        hysterical ヒステリックな
        silly 馬鹿げた
        bitter 苦い
        sarcastic 皮肉な
        false  まやかし
        cruel  残酷な

live a/an -------------------- life
        long 長い
        short 短い
        happy 幸せな
        full いっぱいに満ちた
        interesting 面白い
        eventful 出来事の多い
        uneventful 平穏無事な
        meaningful 意味のある
        meaningless 無意味な
        boring 退屈な
        poverty-stricken 非常に貧乏な

die a/an -------------------- death
        slow 遅い
        miserable 惨めな
        painful 苦しい
        agonizing ひどく苦痛な
        painless 痛みのない
        pointless 意味のない
        meaningless  無意味な
        useless 無駄な
        cowardly 卑怯な
        horrible 凄まじい
        horrifying ぞっとさせるような
        horrific 恐ろしい
        sudden 急な
        quick 早い

fight a -------------------- fight
        hard 激しい

Just to summarise, "dream a dream" is okay but not "sleep a sleep", since we have to use an adjective ("sleep a deep sleep"). It is the latter kind of pattern that I have here called the cognate object pattern.

◆NOTES◆
be equivalent to ~:~と同等である


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114. Cognate objects (1)

114. Cognate objects (1)

We can use the term "cognate object" to refer to what in the last Column I called "true cognate objects". This refers to those objects which must have an adjective before them:

1) I slept a deep sleep.
2) He laughed a loud laugh.
3) He died a sudden death.

Or, they can be followed by a that-clause, etc.:
4) He slept a sleep that was deep.

Therefore the following kind of sentence is incorrect:

4) × I slept a sleep.

But in the case of the "a song" type of object I discussed in the previous Column, we can say either of these:

5) I sang a song. / I sang a short song.
6) I danced a dance. / I danced a romantic dance.

So, to summarize, true cognate objects can only occur with an adjective or that-clause, etc.

Many of the expressions of the adjective + cognate object type are very common collocations, and as such are worth learning by heart. In the next Column, I will give many examples of adjective + cognate object.


◆NOTES◆
to summarize:まとめると
collocation:コロケーション(ある語・句同士の習慣的な結び付き)
as such:そういうものとして、それ自体は
be worth -ing:~する価値がある
learn by heart:暗記する

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113. Is "He sang a song" an example of a cognate object?

113. Is "He sang a song" an example of a cognate object?

A cognate object is the object of a sentence which repeats the verb (in noun form of course). Examples of what are sometimes considered cognate objects are:

1) He sang a song.
2) She danced a dance.
3) I drank a drink.

In these sentences the verb and the noun, which is the object of the sentence, are both, as it were, saying the same thing.

The term "cognate object" sometimes also refers to an object which has, more or less, the same meaning as the verb:

4) We ran a race.
5) They fought a battle.
6) He cried tears.

In all the above sentences, we can add an adjective before the nouns, like this:

7) She sang a beautiful song.
8) I drank a cold drink.
9) They fought a fierce battle.
10) He cried bitter tears.

However, there are some nouns which are related to verbs which are different in the grammar from the above. Here are some examples:

sleep > a sleep
laugh > a laugh
live > a life
die > a death

The relationship between "sleep" and "a sleep", "laugh" and "a laugh", etc. is different from the relationship between "sing" and "a song", "fight" and "a battle", etc.

The reason for this is that "a sleep", "a laugh", etc. are examples of true cognate objects. On the other hand, "a song", "a dance", etc. are not examples of true cognate objects.

In the next Column, I will discuss how the grammar of these two groups is different.


◆NOTES◆
cognate:同語源の、同語族の
what are considered A:A(複数)と見なされるもの<consider B A:BをAとみなす
as it were:ところが実際は
refer to ~:~を示す、表す
more or less:多少、ある程度
cry tears:涙を流す

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108. 'I got to do it'

108. 'I got to do it'

This is another "get" pattern which is not commonly taught. It is a colloquial pattern, and this is perhaps the reason why it is not taught.

"I got to do it" has two, but overlapping, meanings:
1) I got the chance to do it./I was lucky enough to have the chance to do it.
2) I got the time to do it./I finally found time to do it.

As I said, these are overlapping meanings, since having the time to do something also often means we have a chance to do it.

This "I got to do it" pattern can be thought of as being a pattern in which "chance" and "time", or similar words are omitted.

Here are some example sentences with these patterns. As the reader will see, sentences (3) to (9) are more closely connected to the idea of chance, and sentences (10) to (16) are connected with the idea of time.
3) When do I get to be batter?
4) I got to play a small part in the movie.
5) But Dad! All the other kids get to stay up late on Saturday night.
6) During this cooking class, you will all get to bake a cake.
7) You get to do it the way you think best.
8) In this game, you only get to throw the ball once.
9) We always do things your way. When will I get to do things my way?
10) I finally got to clean out my room last week.
11) If everything goes well, I should be able to get to work in the garden this weekend.
12) I just cannot get to write the new computer program.
13) Don't worry. There is plenty of time. Everyone will get to have a go.
14) I just cannot get to do all the things I want to do.
15) You are always making me hurry with my work. I never get to do it properly.
16) I have been really been busy and have not had time to get to do it.

◆NOTES◆

・colloquial: 口語的な
・overlapping: 重なり合った
・be thought of as ~: ~と見なされる(>think of A as B)
・idea: 概念

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